### References & Citations

# Mathematics > Probability

# Title: On algebraic Stein operators for Gaussian polynomials

(Submitted on 10 Dec 2019 (v1), last revised 20 Sep 2021 (this version, v3))

Abstract: The first essential ingredient to build up Stein's method for a continuous target distribution is to identify a so-called \textit{Stein operator}, namely a linear differential operator with polynomial coefficients. In this paper, we introduce the notion of \textit{algebraic} Stein operators (see Definition \ref{def:algebraic-Stein-Operator}), and provide a novel algebraic method to find \emph{all} the algebraic Stein operators up to a given order and polynomial degree for a target random variable of the form $Y=h(X)$, where $X=(X_1,\dots, X_d)$ has i.i.d$.$ standard Gaussian components and $h\in \mathbb{K}[X]$ is a polynomial with coefficients in the ring $\mathbb{K}$. Our approach links the existence of an algebraic Stein operator with \textit{null controllability} of a certain linear discrete system. A \texttt{MATLAB} code checks the null controllability up to a given finite time $T$ (the order of the differential operator), and provides all \textit{null control} sequences (polynomial coefficients of the differential operator) up to a given maximum degree $m$. This is the first paper that connects Stein's method with computational algebra to find Stein operators for highly complex probability distributions, such as $H_{20}(X_1)$, where $H_p$ is the $p$-th Hermite polynomial. Some examples of Stein operators for $H_p(X_1)$, $p=3,4,5,6$, are gathered in the Appendix and many other examples are given in the Supplementary Information.

## Submission history

From: Robert Gaunt [view email]**[v1]**Tue, 10 Dec 2019 10:01:58 GMT (128kb,D)

**[v2]**Sat, 4 Apr 2020 16:06:03 GMT (118kb,D)

**[v3]**Mon, 20 Sep 2021 09:29:10 GMT (82kb,D)

Link back to: arXiv, form interface, contact.